When I travel, I like to rise as early as possible in a new time zone. The great cities of the world are best seen early: the cobblestone streets in the heart of Old Montreal, with waiters percussively dragging chairs and tables onto the patios; the still, winding alleyways of Barcelona, weaving toward Gaudi’s melting modernist masterpiece, the Sagrada Familia cathedral; Place de la Concorde in Paris, with its Egyptian obelisk saluting the rising sun as vendors prepare their fruit and vegetable stands in neighbouring streets.

Small, fragile sounds are perceptible before a city wakens: bird chirps, rustling foliage, your own footfalls. To my mind, dawn is when urban environments present their best face, before the white noise of rush hour.

As a connoisseur of quiet, I’ve explored a number of geographic spots free of urban clamour, including the World Botanical Museum in Kauai (where Steven Spielberg filmed Jurassic Park); limestone caves in Cuba and Antigua; and the Capuchin Crypt beneath a church in Rome, where the centuries-old skulls and bones of monks are arranged in rococo patterns on the chapel walls.

I have also navigated museums of unpopular or obscure subjects, which is always a dependable source of silence. One day several years ago at the University of Bologna, I was the only visitor to a medical museum devoted to deformities and diseases. I must have been pretty quiet myself, because at closing time the staff locked all the doors and prepared to leave. Only my pounding spared me an overnight stay with wax figures of syphilis and smallpox victims.

These days I work at home in a quiet neighbourhood, so any ambient sound is mostly of my own choice. Yet for many of us silence has become a rare commodity. Outside there are lawn mowers, leaf blowers, planes, trains and automobiles. Inside there’s grinding coffee makers, ringtones, jabbering coworkers or customers, and the demented din of commercial television and talk radio: the Electric Blight Orchestra.

Vancouverites commonly complain about the conversation-cancelling sound level in local bars and restaurants, which replicates a trend found in other cities. A 2012 study in New York City found a third of restaurants, bars, retailers, and gyms examined were “borderline dangerous” to hearing. This racket is a racket, so to speak. Studies have found that patrons subjected to loud music are less likely to linger after a meal (yelling is tiring). Even more profitably, patrons are likely to imbibe greater amounts of alcohol.

According to medical studies, noise pollution is a significant threat to human health, disproportionately afflicting the working poor. Insomnia, aggression, heart disease and even decreased longevity have been correlated with cacophonous living or working conditions. (Even the U.S. military understands how loud noise can be torturous. According to a disturbing 2005 Washington Post report, detainees at Guantanamo Bay were incessantly subjected to the recorded wail of infants overlaid with a track of repeating Meow Mix commercials.)

Although our culture worships at the altar of frenetic activity, glad-handing extroversion and kick-ass entertainment — where noise is a sacrament — many of us appreciate the virtues of consciously held stillness. Meditation, yoga, prayer, reading or walks in the wilderness are popular avenues into this state of grace. And thankfully, city planners of the past had the foresight to quarantine large sections of urban space from noise. The grand boulevards of Paris, Central Park in New York and Stanley Park in Vancouver are a few examples that come to mind.

This brings me to one of the unheralded blessings of Christmas. After all the mall-going and Mammon-worship, coupled with the round of seasonal obligations and chores, by the afternoon of Dec. 24 a stillness descends on the cities of the industrialized West like a warm blanket.

There is nothing like a walk on Christmas morning to appreciate civilized stillness. A holiday greeting shared between pedestrians at this time feels somewhere between a salutation and a benediction. Strangers who occupy this momentary bubble of stillness can’t help but smile in mutual warmth — even Vancouverites, globally renowned for their public aloofness.

It’s an experiment worth performing alone or with family, to soak in the annual civic stillness on the morning of the 25th. I know I will be enjoying the crisp, traffic-free ambience with my wife on that day. Happy holidays.

The Vancouver Courier, Dec. 20


The Unheralded Virtues of Absence


It was a warm summer night on Salt Spring Island. The wine flowed freely as wasps flew reconnaissance missions over dessert dishes. Our host held up her glass and offered us a shot of Tao – a concept, not a drink. “The hollowness of the vessel is as important as the glass itself,” she said, explaining how Taoists appreciated the value of things absent.

When I got home, I plucked a dog-eared copy of the Tao Te Ching from a bookshelf, to sharpen my recollection of Lao Tzu’s original words. “The utility of the cart depends on the hollow centre in which the axle turns,” wrote the Chinese sage in sixth century BC. “Clay is moulded into a vessel; the utility of the vessel depends on its hollow interior. Doors and windows are cut out in order to make a house; the utility of the house depends on the empty spaces.

“Thus, while the existence of things may be good, it is the non-existent in them which makes them serviceable.”

This truism may make perfect sense to Taoists, but such notions fit uneasily in westernized brainpans. For most of us, the word “nothing” conjures up a void, an absence, a lack. Nothingness is shorthand for failure, meaninglessness or just plain nihilism. In the secular, scientific mindset, nonexistence is our final destination after a few decades of putzing around on Earth. The slim volume of one’s life is bracketed by twin eternities of nada, like monstrous bookends. To believe otherwise is supposedly superstitious, pseudoscientific or shame-facedly sentimental.

In this view, we make our ways from the crib to the coffin in an eyeblink of geological time, and that’s it. You get only one shot to make the best of it, although from the perspective of a 13 billion-year-old cosmos, you might as well have never existed at all. Good times.


“Nothing is an awe-inspiring yet essentially undigested concept, highly esteemed by writers of an existentialist tendency, but by most others regarded with anxiety, nausea, or panic,” wrote P.L. Heath for his tongue-in-cheek entry on Nothing for the Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Nobody seems to know how to deal with it (he would, of course) and plain persons generally are reported to have little difficulty in saying, seeing, hearing, and doing nothing.”

SeinfeldThe few positive interpretations of ‘nothing’ in western culture are more comic than cosmic. In an episode from the nineties-era comedy series Seinfeld, Jerry and George make a pitch to a television producer for a new series that sounds strangely familiar. “It’s about nothing!” George exclaims, in a meta-level comment on the world he and his friends are embedded in: a sitcom that leverages life’s minor potholes and into epic pitfalls.

“Emptiness” comes off even worse than “nothing” in western lingo. According to Wikipedia, it is “a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy. Feelings of emptiness often accompany dysthymia, depression, loneliness, anhedonia, despair, or other mental/emotional disorders, including schizoid personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal personality disorder and borderline personality disorder.” That’s a lot of baggage for one word to carry.

Not surprisingly, “emptiness” has different shades of meaning in Asian cultures, particularly Buddhism. The Sanskrit term Śūnyatā is commonly translated into English as emptiness, but the meanings branch out – depending on the doctrinal context – to voidness, openness, spaciousness and “thusness.” In Mahayana Buddhism, it commonly means that no person or object has an independent phenomenal existence. All things depend on other things and come into being through ‘mutual arising.’ This idea of mutual interdependence, in different language, is now a fixture in present-day ecology, social sciences and physics. The measurer and the measured are forever entangled, dancing an ontological tango that weaves the world into being.


Atoms are 99.9999999 percent empty space. In his 1928 book The Nature of the Physical World, Sir Arthur Eddington offered the “parable of the two writing desks.” The first one is the dependable, solid piece of furniture propping up his typewriter. The second was the desk, as imagined by a new generation of physicists, consisting almost entirely of nothingness, with inconceivably small atomic nuclei and electrons separated by empty space a hundred thousand times larger in scale.

Arthur Eddington, physicist and Quaker mystic

“In the world of physics, we watch a shadowgraph performance of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow-table as the shadow-ink flows over the shadow-paper… The frank realization that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances,” Eddington wrote.

He would have appreciated the mid-century discovery of a subatomic particle called the neutrino – a will-o’-the-wisp that is about as close to nothing as anyone can imagine. A single neutrino can pass through 1,000 light-years of lead without interacting. But how to detect such elusive particles? In a mid-sixties effort to capture neutrinos emitted from the sun, experimental physicists buried a huge tank of perchloroethylene thousands of feet underground in a gold mine in South Dakota, far from the effect of cosmic rays. The detectors installed with the tank didn’t catch the neutrinos themselves, but rather the argon isotope created after the extremely improbable collisions with the nuclei of chlorine atoms. It was like waiting for a passing ghost to topple a candlestick in an abandoned mansion, but the physicists’ patience won out, revealing the spooky neutrinos’ existence.

The elusive subatomic particle inspired the writer John Updike to pen his 1960 poem, Cosmic Gall:

Neutrinos, they are very small. / They have no charge and have no mass / And do not interact at all. / The earth is just a silly ball / To them, through which they simply pass, / Like dustmaids down a drafty hall / Or photons through a sheet of glass.


The first neutrino detectors were kludgy, steampunk-like contraptions compared to CERN’s Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, which has been tasked to hunt for even stranger prey. The seven-story LHC is the plaything of thousands of scientists from across the world. They accelerate protons to speeds close to the speed of light and smash them together in the guts of the LHC. Because energy is equivalent to mass, the high energies of the collisions conjure up bizarre, heavy particles. It’s a bit like throwing two clocks against each other to discover new components that were never there to begin with.

Analyzing the results of the impacts, the big brains of the LHC believe they have found the footprints of the Higgs particle, one of the subatomic ancestors of the phenomenal world that is responsible for that convincing ‘something’ we call “mass.”

You could say the job of the largest machine ever built is to interrogate the void – the background to our day-to-day foreground. And as particle physicists plunge into smaller scales of the microworld, astronomers penetrate ever-greater distances into the macroworld. They have discovered that normal matter amounts to less that five percent of the mass-energy of the observable universe; the rest is tied up in something called “dark matter” and “dark energy.”

The world we see and interact with – including everything detected by the LHC – appears to be embedded in, or running parallel to, something literally otherworldly, which will most likely require a new physics to describe.

Science has not exorcised magic from the world – it has only succeeded in chasing things “that go bump in the night” to the furthest margins of empirical investigation. According to the most commonly accepted interpretation of quantum theory, subatomic particles don’t exist in the common sense of the word until a measurement is performed on them. Weirder yet, so-called “virtual particles” can emerge from a perfect vacuum – the so-called “zero-point field” – as long as they return to the vacuum in a precise amount of time, set within the constraints of a time/energy variant of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

“So the modern conception of the vacuum is one of a seething ferment of quantum field activity, with waves surging randomly this way and that,” observes Oxford-trained physicist Paul Davies in New Scientist. And surprise! Turns out you can get a sort of something from this sort of nothing, at least according to theoretical physicists, who put the birth of the universe – that is, our observable universe – down to a quantum hiccup in the zero-point field. In this view, the vacuum is a well of creative potential that birthed space, time, matter and energy like a stochastic Shiva. In other words, our everyday ideas of ‘nothing’ and ‘something’ don’t seem to quite work in the language of science.

Paging Lao Tzu: call on the LHC white courtesy telephone.


HoltIn his marvellous 2012 book Why Does the World Exist? An Existential Detective Story, author Jim Holt points to a puzzling property of zilch. “Nothingness, in addition to being the simplest, the least arbitrary, and the most symmetrical of all possible realities, also has the nicest entropy profile,” the author observes. In other words, nothingness seems to represent a kind of perfection. Is nothing ‘sacred’? Perhaps not in the usual sense of the word, but physicists insist our cosmos exists in a state of “broken symmetry.” An archaic ‘defect’ in the perfectly symmetric void resulted in the Big Bang and its evolutionary after-effects, which includes our world of barking dogs, Bach fugues and baseball games.

The zero-point field is the Tao dressed up in a lab coat with a pocket protector and it’s as close to you as your next heartbeat. Our shadow world, like Eddington’s shadow desk, contains a creative emptiness at its heart. As Lao Tzu wrote,

The Tao is like a well: / used but never used up. / It is like the eternal void: / filled with infinite possibilities. / It is hidden but always present. / I don’t know who gave birth to it. / It is older than God.

At this point, the average person’s mind starts spinning like a George Costanza sales pitch. With a universe this balls-to-the-wall bizarre, talk of ghosts and poltergeists is hardly any more challenging than ‘squarks’ or ‘gluinos,’ just two of the many theoretical particles drawn up to explain dark matter.

Alan Watts in his study

In a seventies-era Pacifica radio broadcast, Zen philosopher Alan Watts mused on the primary strangeness of being a conscious self. “I know that you feel that you are I in just the same way that I feel that I am I. We all have the same background of nothing, we don’t remember having done it before, and yet it has been done before again and again and again, not only before in time but all around us everywhere else in space…

“What has happened once can very well happen again,” he said of our sense of singular, subjective being. “If it happened once it’s extraordinary, and it’s not really very much more extraordinary if it happened all over again…”

The Tao – which is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but rather the underlying dynamism of the universe – eludes final description. We are not separate from this dynamism so when we try to puzzle it out separately from our own consciousness, we get caught up in Möbius strips of logical paradox.

At the beginning of a new millennium, all our previous ideas about matter, energy and mind appear to be up for grabs. Perhaps scientists will come to realize that sentience runs deeper and wider in this cosmos than previously thought. As Watts observed, “The universe is a system which forgets itself and then again remembers anew so there’s always constant change and constant variety in the span of time. It also does it in the span of space by looking at itself through every different living organism, giving an all-around view.”


Is it possible our widely accepted, negative ideas of nothingness – particularly, the anticipation our personal extinction at death – underlies a great deal of the sickness infecting western culture? It’s likely far more people on Earth fear an eternity of nonexistence more than the fires of a putative Hell. Perhaps the depressive wageslave’s gobbling of SSRI drugs is as much a desperate effort to ward off the spectre of emptiness as the First World’s resource-grabbing crusades on poor nations, which drive the bread-and-circuses of hypercapitalism.

Drugs, sex, work, gambling, religious fundamentalism and all manner of distractions, analogue and digital, are thrown against the troubling idea of nonexistence. All in a frantic, temporary effort to forget our existential condition.

olsonartEmptiness isn’t the end of possibility; it’s the beginning. Consider the sculptor who sees the hole in a piece of driftwood not as an absence but the seed of an idea. Or the composer who starts with blank sheets of paper and ends with a symphony. Or the mother who sees the vacant corner lot not as a suburban eyesore, but an opportunity to reconnect her community with the dirt under their feet. Or even the teacher who instructs his students to trust the still, central point within themselves. There are millions and millions of people who bind the fractures in our world of broken symmetry with creativity, compassion and care – all of which are species of love. And that’s hardly ‘nothing.’

It seems to me our overworked, overscheduled, over stimulated culture is long overdue for a shot of Tao. But enough talk. I will leave the closing words to that shadowy figure from sixth century BC: Lao Tzu:

The Tao is like a bellows: / It is empty yet infinitely capable. / The more you use it, the more it produces; / The more you talk of it, the less you understand. / Hold on to the center.

Common Ground, December


Dear readers,

Greetings from December, 2030. The Christmas tree has been decorated, the dog has antlers on, and there’s a cup of mulled wine and a jellyfish sandwich waiting on my writing desk. And thanks to Beijing Telecom, I can communicate backwards in time with q-mail.

Monsanto’s unfortunate Ebola/E. coli mixup of 2028 is now yesterday’s news. As some of you will one day remember, a continental outbreak of hemorrhagic fever sent zombies lurching across the land in search of retail therapy at long-gone malls (memories of brick-and-mortar shopping die hard). Drone strikes are picking off the last of the Canadian Undead as I dictate this.

Artwork by Anthony Freda www.anthonyfreda.com
Artwork by Anthony Freda

My partner doesn’t care much for the sound of drones, but I find the buzz from above soothing: a background hum of security courtesy the military-industrial toy shop (yes, I’ve become a bit more conservative with age, news which will horrify my younger, touchy-feely self). Still, I occasionally feel nostalgic for a time when drone flights were fewer in number. The ongoing accidents on the Matternet are troubling.

In fact, my drone-flown book from Amazon.ca collided on Black Friday with someone’s cannabis package vectoring in from Washington State.  Ironically, I had ordered a copy of From Jail to Judiciary by Canadian Supreme Court justice Mark Emery (sometimes the universe will just arrange these weird little juxtapositions, for whatever reason).

Speaking of accidents, three weeks ago I slipped on some ice and broke my hip. Our home 3D printer was on the fritz, so I arrived at VGH without a replacement pelvic part in hand, which made for extra paperwork and a prolonged wait in the hospital’s McDonaldland. (This reminds me of an old joke. “THEN: getting out to a new, hip joint. NOW: getting a new hip joint.”)

I’m OK now, but I’m not big on aging for a number of reasons. For example, I can’t bear to part with obsolescent gadgets. I still wear my Google glasses on walks around the block, undeterred by shouts of “Ebenezer” from the neighbourhood kids and their volley of snowballs. That ballistic risk is year-round I might add, now that global cooling has gone from  pseudoscience to Ice Age reality. Who’d have thought back in 2013 that industries would get credits to pump more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to fend off glaciation and a return of The Ice Capades?

Where was I? Oh yes — my old school, search-engine spectacles. I could never get with the global brain implant craze. Yours Truly already had a sense of foreboding back in 2010, when Google’s then-CEO Eric Schmidt said brain implants would be an example of something crossing the company’s “creepy line,” adding, “at least for the moment until the technology gets better.” Look it up, I’m not kidding. You still have time to determine your future. That goes double for shutting down the Large Hadron Collider before Skrulls discover it as a galactic portal.

Though I grumble and curse like most seniors — especially about the chill factor and the outrageous drone/hipstercopter accident rate —  I still think Vancouver is a far better place to live than anywhere south of the border. After red state zombies devoured Secretary of State Gaga and her staff, they formed a Political Action Committee and went negative with attack ads. As a result, the Congressional Undead have been granted immunity from Terminator strikes by President Bezos — the most disturbing American development since the crucifixion of Russell Brand at Madison Square Gardens in 2025.

Here in B.C., we may have cold-adapted pine beetles the size of bricks, but at least we’re not using proton bazookas to fight off huge, ambulatory jellyfish and sentient barnacles, like Japan’s coast guard. Perhaps it’s the background radiation, but things seem to happen faster now than when I was younger, which is not always such a bad thing. As you know, it took years for the Canadian Royal Mint to take the penny back. What you don’t know yet is that it took under a year to take the nickel back, and then just two months for legislation to take out Nickelback.

So a toast of mulled wine to you, my loyal readers of the past. Happy holidays, and may you one day shop until “they” drop (the last remaining zombies of Upper Cascadia, that is).

The Vancouver Courier, Dec. 13